By Manon Marianne. Engine Wiring. Publised at Tuesday, September 19th 2017, 19:35:06 PM. Building on that work, in 1864 two German engineers named Nicolaus August Otto and Eugen Langen founded a company that made engines similar to Lenoir’s model. Otto gave up managing the company and started working on an engine design that he had been toying with since 1861. His design led to what we now know as the four-stroke engine, and the basic design is still used in cars today.
By Manon Marianne. Engine Wiring. Published at Wednesday, January 24th 2018, 02:13:22 AM. "We first needed to understand how much heat was available from the powertrain during various drive cycles and cold start conditions," he says. By simulating thermal components that control the powertrain heat, such as the electronic thermostat, cooling fans, grill shutters, and water valve, they determined the best way to distribute the available energy.
By Thibault Margaux. Engine Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 16:16:00 PM. Stability and control have been major roadblocks to the implementation of many advanced combustion modes. Many low-temperature combustion modes such as GCI and RCCI operate on the edge of stability—in other words, at conditions under which very small variations in engine boundary conditions (such as intake temperature) may result in unintended excursions that result in undesirable emissions, reduced efficiency, and the potential to destroy the engine or emissions control system. One can imagine the challenge of these types of combustion modes under ever-changing conditions of a real-world drive cycle where a single unintended excursion could be catastrophic. Meeting that challenge requires a control system which is predictive for avoidance rather than reactive after the occurrence of a potentially damaging event.
By Marthe Mathilde. Engine Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 13:57:19 PM. Even the most efficient and robust engine technologies will never make it to market without the vehicle system meeting emissions regulations. But this is not the first instance where significant emissions control advances were needed to transition a combustion technology to market. Advances in catalyst technologies more than 40 years ago were critical to meeting emerging emissions regulations; the effectiveness of catalysts for conventional spark-ignition engines has since improved by a factor of 100 while achieving a substantial reduction in expensive platinum group metals. Meeting the new challenges is a very active area of research at ORNL and other U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, as well as in industry.
By Manon Marianne. Engine Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 05:58:08 AM. Pistons move up and down the cylinder. They look like upside down soup cans. When fuel ignites in the combustion chamber, the force pushes the piston downward, which in turn moves the crankshaft (see below). The piston attaches to the crankshaft via a connecting rod, aka the con rod. It connects to the connecting rod via a piston pin, and the connecting rod connects to the crankshaft via a connecting rod bearing.
By Thibault Margaux. Electrical Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 04:47:11 AM. A home’s electrical system is prone to wear and tear. Regular testing and evaluation of receptacles, switches, and breakers can prevent dangerous situations down the road. There are two electrical upgrades that should be installed to protect your home: ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) and arc fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs). GFCIs protect against electrical shock caused by ground faults or leaking electrical current. These devices monitor the current in a circuit and interrupt or stop the flow of power to that circuit if a spike or loss of power is detected. In new construction, GFCI receptacles are required by code in bathrooms, kitchens, and garages, on outdoor outlets, and in crawl spaces or unfinished basements.
By Faustine Arnaud. Engine Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 03:50:08 AM. All actuators needed to work in concert to heat the oil fast and keep the temperature steady. Opening the grill shutters or running the electric air fan consumes power. Controlling actuators in concert is a new way of addressing thermal management. While more complex, it enables the system to arrive at a steady temperature quicker and under all operating conditions, which extends the life of each thermal-control actuator, Laboe says.
By Marthe Mathilde. Engine Wiring. Published at Tuesday, January 23rd 2018, 01:43:28 AM. In the 16th century, inventors created a form of internal combustion engine using gunpowder as the fuel to power the movement of the pistons. Actually, it wasn’t the gunpowder that moved them. The way this early internal combustion engine worked was you’d stuff a piston all the way to the top of a cylinder and then ignite gunpowder beneath the piston. A vacuum would form after the explosion and suck the piston down the cylinder. Because this engine relied on the changes in air pressure to move the piston, they called it the atmospheric engine. It wasn’t very efficient. By the 17th century, steam engines were showing a lot of promise, so the internal combustion engine was abandoned.
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