Most camshafts extend through the top part of the engine block, directly above the crankshaft. On inline engines, a single camshaft controls both the intake and outtake valves. On V-shaped engines, two separate camshafts are used. One controls the valves on one side of the V and the other controls the valves on the opposite side. Some V-shaped engines (like the one in our illustration) will even have two camshafts per cylinder bank. One camshaft controls one side of valves, and the other camshaft controls the other side.
Contrast that to an external combustion engine, where fuel is burned outside the engine and the energy created from that burning is what powers it. Steam engines are the best example of this. Coal is burned outside of the engine, which heats water to produce steam, which then powers the engine.
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